Particles

 

Particles

Function

Examples

Topic

‚Ν (wa)

Topic marker

Nihon wa omoshiroi desu.

Subject

‚ͺ (ga)

Subject marker

Tabemono ga oishii desu.

Topic/Subject

‚ΰimoj

= Also

Norimono mo suki desu.

 

 

Object

‚πioj

Object marker

Ringo o agemasu.

Indirect Object

‚Ι (ni)

Object marker

Anata ni agemasu.

Direction

‚Φ(e) / ‚Ι(ni)

= to, toward

Eki e/ni ikimasu.

Location

‚Ɂinij

= at, in

Ie ni imasu.

Location (place of dynamic action)

‚Łidej

= at, in

Soto de asobimasu.

Temporal word

‚Ɂinij

= at / on / in

8:30 ni ikimasu.

Person/thing

‚Ɓitoj

= with (joint action)

Tsune to ikimasu.

Method(s)

‚Łidej

= by / through

Kuruma de ikimasu.

Starting point / source

‚©‚ηikaraj

= from

Ie kara ikimasu.

Ending point

‚܂Łimadej

= till / up to

Kuukoo made ikimasu.

Dead line

‚܂łɁimadenij

= By

Getsu-yoobi madeni teishutsu shimasu.

 

Alternative

‚©ikaj

 or

Alternative

Ringo ka mikan o kudasai.

Tsune ka Nubia ga kimasu.

Enumerative

‚Ɓitoj

= and

Enumerative

Nihon to Australia ga suki desu.

 

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Final Particles

 These particles are attached to the end of the sentence, and serve to make it into a question or to add the feelings of the speaker.  Pay attention that you do not make any mistakes in the intonation (the rising and falling of the tone), as this may result in having you intention misunderstood.

 

Final particles

Function

Examples

Ka

(ͺ) question

Kore wa takai desu ka?

Is this expensive?

(«)Uncertainty

Kore wa doo daroo ka.

I wonder how this would be.

(«)Comprehension.

A, soo desu ka.

Is that so.

ne

(ͺ) confirmation

Nonaka sensei desu ne.

Itfs Mr.NONAKA, isnft it?

(«) agreement

Aa, ii desu ne.

Oh, thatfs good, isnft it?

nee

(¨) in thought

Soo desu nee.

Hmmc

yo

(ͺ)

Supplying information

Moujiki da yo.

Itfs soon.

(«) assertion

Kare wa kakkoii yo.

He is cool.

yone

(«) emphasis

Kore wa takai desu yone.

Is this expensive, right?

 

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